Source code for gevent.baseserver

"""Base class for implementing servers"""
# Copyright (c) 2009-2012 Denis Bilenko. See LICENSE for details.
from __future__ import print_function
from __future__ import absolute_import
from __future__ import division

import sys
import _socket
import errno

from gevent.greenlet import Greenlet
from gevent.event import Event
from gevent.hub import get_hub
from gevent._compat import string_types
from gevent._compat import integer_types
from gevent._compat import xrange

__all__ = ['BaseServer']

# We define a helper function to handle closing the socket in
# do_handle; We'd like to bind it to a kwarg to avoid *any* lookups at
# all, but that's incompatible with the calling convention of
# do_handle. On CPython, this is ~20% faster than creating and calling
# a closure and ~10% faster than using a @staticmethod. (In theory, we
# could create a closure only once in set_handle, to wrap self._handle,
# but this is safer from a  backwards compat standpoint.)
# we also avoid unpacking the *args tuple when calling/spawning this object
# for a tiny improvement (benchmark shows a wash)
def _handle_and_close_when_done(handle, close, args_tuple):
        return handle(*args_tuple)

[docs] class BaseServer(object): """ An abstract base class that implements some common functionality for the servers in gevent. :param listener: Either be an address that the server should bind on or a :class:`gevent.socket.socket` instance that is already bound (and put into listening mode in case of TCP socket). :keyword handle: If given, the request handler. The request handler can be defined in a few ways. Most commonly, subclasses will implement a ``handle`` method as an instance method. Alternatively, a function can be passed as the ``handle`` argument to the constructor. In either case, the handler can later be changed by calling :meth:`set_handle`. When the request handler returns, the socket used for the request will be closed. Therefore, the handler must not return if the socket is still in use (for example, by manually spawned greenlets). :keyword spawn: If provided, is called to create a new greenlet to run the handler. By default, :func:`gevent.spawn` is used (meaning there is no artificial limit on the number of concurrent requests). Possible values for *spawn*: - a :class:`gevent.pool.Pool` instance -- ``handle`` will be executed using :meth:`gevent.pool.Pool.spawn` only if the pool is not full. While it is full, no new connections are accepted; - :func:`gevent.spawn_raw` -- ``handle`` will be executed in a raw greenlet which has a little less overhead then :class:`gevent.Greenlet` instances spawned by default; - ``None`` -- ``handle`` will be executed right away, in the :class:`Hub` greenlet. ``handle`` cannot use any blocking functions as it would mean switching to the :class:`Hub`. - an integer -- a shortcut for ``gevent.pool.Pool(integer)`` .. versionchanged:: 1.1a1 When the *handle* function returns from processing a connection, the client socket will be closed. This resolves the non-deterministic closing of the socket, fixing ResourceWarnings under Python 3 and PyPy. .. versionchanged:: 1.5 Now a context manager that returns itself and calls :meth:`stop` on exit. """ # pylint: disable=too-many-instance-attributes,bare-except,broad-except #: the number of seconds to sleep in case there was an error in accept() call #: for consecutive errors the delay will double until it reaches max_delay #: when accept() finally succeeds the delay will be reset to min_delay again min_delay = 0.01 max_delay = 1 #: Sets the maximum number of consecutive accepts that a process may perform on #: a single wake up. High values give higher priority to high connection rates, #: while lower values give higher priority to already established connections. #: Default is 100. #: #: Note that, in case of multiple working processes on the same #: listening socket, it should be set to a lower value. (pywsgi.WSGIServer sets it #: to 1 when ``environ["wsgi.multiprocess"]`` is true) #: #: This is equivalent to libuv's `uv_tcp_simultaneous_accepts #: <>`_ #: value. Setting the environment variable UV_TCP_SINGLE_ACCEPT to a true value #: (usually 1) changes the default to 1 (in libuv only; this does not affect gevent). max_accept = 100 _spawn = Greenlet.spawn #: the default timeout that we wait for the client connections to close in stop() stop_timeout = 1 fatal_errors = (errno.EBADF, errno.EINVAL, errno.ENOTSOCK) def __init__(self, listener, handle=None, spawn='default'): self._stop_event = Event() self._stop_event.set() self._watcher = None self._timer = None self._handle = None # XXX: FIXME: Subclasses rely on the presence or absence of the # `socket` attribute to determine whether we are open/should be opened. # Instead, have it be None. # XXX: In general, the state management here is confusing. Lots of stuff is # deferred until the various ``set_`` methods are called, and it's not documented # when it's safe to call those self.pool = None # can be set from ``spawn``; overrides self.full() try: self.set_listener(listener) self.set_spawn(spawn) self.set_handle(handle) self.delay = self.min_delay self.loop = get_hub().loop if self.max_accept < 1: raise ValueError('max_accept must be positive int: %r' % (self.max_accept, )) except: self.close() raise def __enter__(self): return self def __exit__(self, *args): self.stop() def set_listener(self, listener): if hasattr(listener, 'accept'): if hasattr(listener, 'do_handshake'): raise TypeError('Expected a regular socket, not SSLSocket: %r' % (listener, )) = self.address = listener.getsockname() self.socket = listener else:, self.address = parse_address(listener) def set_spawn(self, spawn): if spawn == 'default': self.pool = None self._spawn = self._spawn elif hasattr(spawn, 'spawn'): self.pool = spawn self._spawn = spawn.spawn elif isinstance(spawn, integer_types): from gevent.pool import Pool self.pool = Pool(spawn) self._spawn = self.pool.spawn else: self.pool = None self._spawn = spawn if hasattr(self.pool, 'full'): self.full = self.pool.full if self.pool is not None: self.pool._semaphore.rawlink(self._start_accepting_if_started) def set_handle(self, handle): if handle is not None: self.handle = handle if hasattr(self, 'handle'): self._handle = self.handle else: raise TypeError("'handle' must be provided") def _start_accepting_if_started(self, _event=None): if self.started: self.start_accepting() def start_accepting(self): if self._watcher is None: # just stop watcher without creating a new one? self._watcher =, 1) self._watcher.start(self._do_read) def stop_accepting(self): if self._watcher is not None: self._watcher.stop() self._watcher.close() self._watcher = None if self._timer is not None: self._timer.stop() self._timer.close() self._timer = None def do_handle(self, *args): spawn = self._spawn handle = self._handle close = self.do_close try: if spawn is None: _handle_and_close_when_done(handle, close, args) else: spawn(_handle_and_close_when_done, handle, close, args) except: close(*args) raise def do_close(self, *args): pass def do_read(self): raise NotImplementedError() def _do_read(self): for _ in xrange(self.max_accept): if self.full(): self.stop_accepting() if self.pool is not None: self.pool._semaphore.rawlink(self._start_accepting_if_started) return try: args = self.do_read() self.delay = self.min_delay if not args: return except: self.loop.handle_error(self, *sys.exc_info()) ex = sys.exc_info()[1] if self.is_fatal_error(ex): self.close() sys.stderr.write('ERROR: %s failed with %s\n' % (self, str(ex) or repr(ex))) return if self.delay >= 0: self.stop_accepting() self._timer = self.loop.timer(self.delay) self._timer.start(self._start_accepting_if_started) self.delay = min(self.max_delay, self.delay * 2) break else: try: self.do_handle(*args) except: self.loop.handle_error((args[1:], self), *sys.exc_info()) if self.delay >= 0: self.stop_accepting() self._timer = self.loop.timer(self.delay) self._timer.start(self._start_accepting_if_started) self.delay = min(self.max_delay, self.delay * 2) break def full(self): # pylint: disable=method-hidden # If a Pool is given for to ``set_spawn`` (the *spawn* argument # of the constructor) it will replace this method. return False def __repr__(self): return '<%s at %s %s>' % (type(self).__name__, hex(id(self)), self._formatinfo()) def __str__(self): return '<%s %s>' % (type(self).__name__, self._formatinfo()) def _formatinfo(self): if hasattr(self, 'socket'): try: fileno = self.socket.fileno() except Exception as ex: fileno = str(ex) result = 'fileno=%s ' % fileno else: result = '' try: if isinstance(self.address, tuple) and len(self.address) == 2: result += 'address=%s:%s' % self.address else: result += 'address=%s' % (self.address, ) except Exception as ex: result += str(ex) or '<error>' handle = self.__dict__.get('handle') if handle is not None: fself = getattr(handle, '__self__', None) try: if fself is self: # Checks the __self__ of the handle in case it is a bound # method of self to prevent recursively defined reprs. handle_repr = '<bound method %s.%s of self>' % ( self.__class__.__name__, handle.__name__, ) else: handle_repr = repr(handle) result += ' handle=' + handle_repr except Exception as ex: result += str(ex) or '<error>' return result @property def server_host(self): """IP address that the server is bound to (string).""" if isinstance(self.address, tuple): return self.address[0] @property def server_port(self): """Port that the server is bound to (an integer).""" if isinstance(self.address, tuple): return self.address[1]
[docs] def init_socket(self): """ If the user initialized the server with an address rather than socket, then this function must create a socket, bind it, and put it into listening mode. It is not supposed to be called by the user, it is called by :meth:`start` before starting the accept loop. """
@property def started(self): return not self._stop_event.is_set()
[docs] def start(self): """Start accepting the connections. If an address was provided in the constructor, then also create a socket, bind it and put it into the listening mode. """ self.init_socket() self._stop_event.clear() try: self.start_accepting() except: self.close() raise
[docs] def close(self): """Close the listener socket and stop accepting.""" self._stop_event.set() try: self.stop_accepting() finally: try: self.socket.close() except Exception: pass finally: self.__dict__.pop('socket', None) self.__dict__.pop('handle', None) self.__dict__.pop('_handle', None) self.__dict__.pop('_spawn', None) self.__dict__.pop('full', None) if self.pool is not None: self.pool._semaphore.unlink(self._start_accepting_if_started)
# If the pool's semaphore had a notifier already started, # there's a reference cycle we're a part of # (self->pool->semaphere-hub callback->semaphore) # But we can't destroy self.pool, because self.stop() # calls this method, and then wants to join self.pool() @property def closed(self): return not hasattr(self, 'socket')
[docs] def stop(self, timeout=None): """ Stop accepting the connections and close the listening socket. If the server uses a pool to spawn the requests, then :meth:`stop` also waits for all the handlers to exit. If there are still handlers executing after *timeout* has expired (default 1 second, :attr:`stop_timeout`), then the currently running handlers in the pool are killed. If the server does not use a pool, then this merely stops accepting connections; any spawned greenlets that are handling requests continue running until they naturally complete. """ self.close() if timeout is None: timeout = self.stop_timeout if self.pool: self.pool.join(timeout=timeout) self.pool.kill(block=True, timeout=1)
[docs] def serve_forever(self, stop_timeout=None): """Start the server if it hasn't been already started and wait until it's stopped.""" # add test that serve_forever exists on stop() if not self.started: self.start() try: self._stop_event.wait() finally: Greenlet.spawn(self.stop, timeout=stop_timeout).join()
def is_fatal_error(self, ex): return isinstance(ex, _socket.error) and ex.args[0] in self.fatal_errors
def _extract_family(host): if host.startswith('[') and host.endswith(']'): host = host[1:-1] return _socket.AF_INET6, host return _socket.AF_INET, host def _parse_address(address): if isinstance(address, tuple): if not address[0] or ':' in address[0]: return _socket.AF_INET6, address return _socket.AF_INET, address if ((isinstance(address, string_types) and ':' not in address) or isinstance(address, integer_types)): # noqa (pep8 E129) # Just a port return _socket.AF_INET6, ('', int(address)) if not isinstance(address, string_types): raise TypeError('Expected tuple or string, got %s' % type(address)) host, port = address.rsplit(':', 1) family, host = _extract_family(host) if host == '*': host = '' return family, (host, int(port)) def parse_address(address): try: return _parse_address(address) except ValueError as ex: # pylint:disable=try-except-raise raise ValueError('Failed to parse address %r: %s' % (address, ex))